Sub Division of Meteorological Instrumentation and Engineering has the task to the preparation of specifications, inventory, monitoring and evaluation, procurement, repairs and maintenance, drafting table shelf life (life time), the implementation of engineering and functional cooperation in the field of instrumentation and engineering operational meteorological equipment.
Here are some examples of instruments used for meteorological observation.
Tools to measure temperature is the thermometer. There are several types of thermometers that are used today, but in observing meteorology and climatology, commonly used in glass thermometer (liquid-in-glass thermometer) for Conventional equipment and thermometers PT-100 for digital equipment.
Glass Thermometer (liquid-in-glass thermometer) is generally used Mercury (mercury) for measurement of temperatures above the freezing point temperature (-38.3 0C) and use alcohol for the measurement had a range of measures under / around the freezing point.
Thermometer based on its construction can be divided into 4 types, namely:
- Sheathed Type with measuring scale was recorded in stem thermometer.
- Sheathed Type with measuring scale was recorded in the thermometer sheath.
- Type Unsheathed with measuring scale was recorded in the stems and place the thermometer.
- Type Unsheathed with measuring scale was recorded in stem thermometer.
Some thermometers those that are equipped with a magnifying glass, mainly for the benefit of medical labotatorium, but rarely used in meteorological observations or climatology.
In addition to temperature or air temperature, weather and climate elements of the other is the air pressure. Air pressure on a surface is the force applied to a surface or area by the air above the surface. Given pressure is proportional to the vertical air mass located above the surface, until the outermost atmospheric boundary layer height. Thats what makes the air pressure in each place is different according to the height of the place. Air pressure is also one of the parameters observed by the observer during the observation of surface air or synoptic observation. In fact there are many tools used to measure air pressure, such as mercury barometer, aneroid barometer, barograph aneroid, Bourdon tube and barograph.
The instrument used to measure the wind speed is cup counter anemometer. This device consists of three fruit bowl that is placed symmetrically on the vertical axis. At the bottom of the vertical axis mounted generator, which is distorted by the three bowls. The voltage of the generator is proportional to the rotating speed of bowls.
Wind vane or weather vane tool is an instrument used to determine the direction of horizontal movement of wind (surface wind). This device consists of an asymmetrical object (eg an arrow or a rooster-shaped arrow attached to the center of gravity so that the arrow that can move freely around its horizontal axis) which is connected to the vane / anemometer sensors on weather cock
In general, humidity (Relative Humidity) is a term used to describe the amount of water vapor in the air and is expressed in percent of the maximum amount of water vapor in saturated conditions. And tools that can be used to measure the humidity of air (Relative Humidity) is Higrometer.
Higrometer hair is a humidity gauge with units of percent of which use the principle of expansion which the hair length hair will elongate when the air humidity increases. The hair used is human hair or horse that has been defatted and then associated with a lever (hinge) associated with the needle pointing to scale so that the zoom scale changes from small changes of hair length.
Measuring rain type Hellman is an instrument / instruments to measure rainfallrain. Hellman type of measuring rainfall is a measuring instrument or recording type rain to record his own. This tool is used in air observation stations surface. Observation by using this tool is done every day at certain hours in good weather mekipun / day was sunny. This tool records the amount of rainfall collected in the form of vertical lines recorded on the paper record. This tool requires intensive care enough to avoid the defects that often occur in this tool.